HEIGHT to 80cm Upright perennial. Similar to Hoary Willowherb but almost hairless. Found in woods and hedges. FLOWERS 6–10mm across (drooping in bud), with pale pink, notched petals and a 4-lobed stigma (June–Aug). FRUITS Pods containing cottony seeds. LEAVES Oval, rounded at the base, toothed; stem leaves opposite. STATUS Widespread and common.
HEIGHT to 30cm Straggling, hairy annual of shady hedgerows, rocky banks and woodlands. FLOWERS 12–15mm across with pink petals and orange pollen; in loose clusters (Apr–Oct). FRUITS Hairy, ending in a long ‘beak’. LEAVES Hairy; deeply cut into 3 or 5 pinnately divided lobes; often tinged red. STATUS Common and widespread throughout.
HEIGHT to 1m Hairy biennial or perennial of hedgerows, grassy banks and wayside places generally. FLOWERS Reddish pink, 20–30mm across; male flowers smaller than females and on separate plants (Mar–Oct). FRUITS Revealing 10 reflexed teeth when ripe. LEAVES Hairy, in opposite pairs. STATUS Widespread and common.
HEIGHT to 75cm Scrambling, downy annual of grassy places and hedgerows. FLOWERS Pinkish purple, 2–3cm long; appearing singly or in pairs (Apr–Sep). FRUITS Pods that ripen black. LEAVES Comprising 3–8 pairs of oval leaflets, ending in tendrils. STATUS Widespread and fairly common throughout; sometimes seen as a relict of cultivation.
Southern Marsh Orchid
HEIGHT to 70cm Robust orchid of water meadows, fens and wet dune slacks, mostly on calcareous soils. FLOWERS Pinkish purple with a broad 3-lobed lip, 11–14mm long, the lobes shallow and blunt; in tall, dense spikes (May–June). FRUITS Egg-shaped. LEAVES Glossy dark green, unmarked (rarely ring-spotted), broadly lanceolate, largest at the base and becoming narrower and sheathing up the stem. STATUS Common only in the south.
Rock Cranes Bill
Pubescent, aromatic perennial to 30 cm. LEAVES
waste Blades 5-10 cm across. FLOWERS In pairs; petals clawed
rounded at tip. HABITAT. Occaisionally escapes and establishes on hedge banks, old walls, roadsides, close to habitation. DISTRIBUTION. Introduced. Long grown in gardens. FLOWERS Jun-Aug
HEIGHT to 1.5m Familiar greyish, downy biennial or short-lived perennial. Grows in woodlands and on moors and sea cliffs, thriving best on acid soils and appearing in good quantity on recently cleared ground. FLOWERS 4–5cm long, the corolla pinkish purple (sometimes white forms are found) with darker spots in the throat; in tall, elegant terminal spikes (June–Sep). FRUITS Green capsules. LEAVES 20–30cm long, downy, oval, wrinkled; forming a rosette in the first year from which the flowering spike appears in the second. STATUS Widespread and common throughout.
HEIGHT to 25cm Short, upright perennial of bare, well-drained acid soils. FLOWERS Greenish, in loose, slender spikes (May–Aug). FRUITS Nut-like. LEAVES Arrow-shaped but with basal lobes pointing forwards; upper leaves clasp the stem. STATUS Widespread and common in suitable habitats.
HEIGHT to 70cm Upright, hairless perennial with stems that are solid and square but not winged. Grows in damp woodland and shady places. FLOWERS 1cm long, greenish with a maroon upper lip, and narrow white borders to the sepal lobes; in open spikes (June–Sep). FRUITS Greenish capsules, like miniature figs. LEAVES Oval, pointed, with sharp teeth. STATUS Widespread and common, except in N Scotland.
CREEPING Low-growing, hairless annual of cultivated and disturbed ground. FLOWERS 10–15mm across with 5 scarlet or pinkish-orange (sometimes blue) petals fringed with hairs; on slender stalks, and opening wide only in bright sunshine (June–Aug). FRUITS Capsules. LEAVES Oval, usually in pairs. STATUS Widespread and generally common throughout the region, except in Scotland.
HEIGHT to 75cm Upright, branched, hairless, greyish-green perennial. Grows on broken, rocky ground, chalk cliffs and old walls. FLOWERS 8–10mm long, the corolla reddish or pink (sometimes white); in dense terminal heads (May–Sep). FRUITS With a feathery pappus. LEAVES Ovate, untoothed, in opposite pairs. STATUS Introduced and widely naturalised but most frequent in coastal districts.
HEIGHT to 40cm Familiar downy perennial found in grassy places on a wide range of soil types. FLOWERS Pinkish red, in dense, unstalked heads 2–3cm across (May–Oct). FRUITS Concealed by calyx. LEAVES Trifoliate, the oval leaflets each bearing a white crescent-shaped mark; stipules triangular and bristle-tipped. STATUS Widespread and often extremely common throughout.
HEIGHT to 50cm Downy perennial of undisturbed grassy places. Similar to Red Clover but has zigzag stems. FLOWERS Reddish purple, in short-stalked heads 2–3cm across (May–July). FRUITS Concealed by calyx. LEAVES Trifoliate with narrow leaflets; stipules not bristle-tipped. STATUS Locally common, except in the north.
HEIGHT to 20cm Creeping, patch-forming perennial that grows in damp or shady wayside places and hedgerows. FLOWERS Vanilla-scented, in pinkish-lilac heads 10–12mm across, carried in spikes 20–25cm long (Dec–Mar). FRUITS Achenes. LEAVES Rounded, 20cm across, long-stalked, present all year. STATUS A naturalised garden escape.